Friday, February 21, 2020

Retail and Investment Banking in the UK Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Retail and Investment Banking in the UK - Essay Example Even though the face of banking may change, the functionality may not be altered in many cases. This, therefore, means that the need to come up with strategies to accommodate the change is necessary. One of the strategies that are brought forward is the use of separation of investment banking from the retail section of banking. Separation of retail banking from investment banking is a strategy that is required as a measure to increase financial stability within a national economy. In this separation, the banks either specialize to perform retail or investment banking in an arrangement known as ring-fencing of the banks (Coppola, 5, September 2014 ). In this arrangement, a local subsidiary of a bank that takes the deposits of local customers is protected from the parent corporation through trade bans and deposits security mechanisms (Song 2004, pp 19). In this way, the deposits of the local customers are protected from external shocks of the economic uncertainties that the large international corporations could have exposed them to. In Great Britain (2012, pp11), the rules that set up the conditions for ring-fenced banks are listed. These rules set the prohibitions that are set for the banks that are set by the regulating authority. In this essay, the effectiveness of the separation of retail banking and investment banking are discussed. The focus of the essay remains if the separation can really bear intended fruits or collapse and the possible consequences of the separation. Investment banking provides services and funds to different sectors of the economy. In doing this, investment banking exposes utilizes the financial capital that is majorly drawn from the savings or deposits of the clients. It means that in a worst-case scenario, if the economic forces force the investments to collapse totally, then the bank is faced with insolvency.  

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

AUDIT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

AUDIT - Essay Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Advantages and Disadvantages of an External Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Description of Risk-Based Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Identified Business Risks at Lordbury Playhouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Role of the External Auditor in the Detection of Fraud at Lordbury Playhouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Bibliography 1. Introduction This refers to your letter dated May 3, 2011 regarding the completed year-end audit of the Spectrum Theater Group Ltd. I have endeavored to give an explanation of the reasons for the huge amount charged for said audit. 2. Legal Requirements to have or not to have an External Audit There are legal mandates in UK for the con duct of external audit in an organization such as the Spectrum Theater Group Ltd. Under the Companies Act of 1985 , auditors are required to audit the annual financial statements of the organization and to submit a corresponding report to management if said report meets the requirements of said Act. The auditors shall also include in their report their findings regarding the accounting records of the organization if properly maintained. ... in accordance with the Combined Code on Corporate Governance effective November 1, 2003, we are also required to review compliance of the organization with the Listing Rules of the said code and to report findings accordingly. 3. The Advantages and Disadvantages of an External Audit An external audit aims to review the company’s financial statements and internal controls for the auditor to give an opinion as to whether the said financial statements are fairly presented. The auditor can also comment on the weaknesses of financial controls and records he finds in the audit. While recognizing the valid purpose of an audit, it has some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages Findings of the auditor regarding financial controls and operational weaknesses or inadequacies can be immediately corrected/improved/enhanced by management; Assurance for management and board of directors that accounting controls and processes used are in place and effective. Accurate financial statement is basis for proper tax filings of the organization , thus penalties and interests can be prevented ; The company’s image or status is improved/enhanced resulting to greater opportunities for projects by in-coming investors and trust by regulatory agencies and the public. Disadvantages The expenses incurred to pay the auditor and the cost of documentation shall involve a huge amount. The agency can rely on their internal auditors to conduct the investigation. External auditor gains access to confidential records. Duplication of efforts of internal auditors and external auditors conducting the audit procedures at the same time, same period for the same purpose. 4. Description of Risk-based Auditing Risk-based audit focuses on risks assessment and prioritization of risks rather than giving

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Strategic Planning For Jet Airways

The Strategic Planning For Jet Airways The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a successful and well-organized strategic planning for airline industry providing Jet Airways strategic plan. Jet Airways is the Indias market leader in airline industries, however has faced increasing competition over the last decade resulting attrition in their market share. The report begins by analysing the current internal and external environment of Jet Airways. Through strategic evaluation its recommended that Jet airways focus on their fundamental service delivery to restore their competitive advantage within the industry. This will require putting into practice a combination of two strategies; a people processes strategy and a strategy focused on technological advancement. The people processes strategy was derived from a number of industry sources outlining Jet Airways decline in customer satisfaction. The technological advancement strategy coincides with the renewal of Jet Airways aircraft fleet and will further improve the overall customer experience. INDEX Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to develop the internal and external environmental analysis and strategic planning with risk management and business ethics. Specific objectives are following, Evaluate the current strategic position of Jet Airways. Examine the strategic Planning Models for Jet Airways. Examine Jet Airways internal and external environment. (1.0) Overview of Jet Airways: Jet Airways is an airline based in Mumbai, India. It is Indias third largest airline after Air India and Kingfisher Airlines. It operates over 400 daily flights to 64 destinations worldwide. Its primary base is Mumbais Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport with secondary hubs at Bangalore, Brussels, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune as focus cities. In July 2008, Which? magazine ranked Jet Airways as the worlds best long- haul airline after Singapore Airlines. In a poll conducted by in September 2008, it was voted as the worlds seventh best airline overall. It has also won an award for the quality of its catering. In February 2009, Jet Airways had 846,000 passengers, making it the second largest airline in India behind Kingfisher Airlines. Jet Airways also operates two low-cost airlines, namely Jet Lite (formerly Air Sahara) and Jet Airways Connect. (1.1.1) Corporate Structure: Mr. Naresh Goyal Chairman Mr. Ali Ghandour Director Mr. Nikos Kardassis Chief Executive Officer Mr. Saroj K. Datta Executive Director Mr. Abdulrahman Albusaidy Group Executive Officer Mr. Sudheer Raghavan Chief Commercial Officer Capt. Hameed Ali Chief Operating Officer Mrs. Anita Goyal | Executive Vice President Network Planning Revenue Management Mr. Raja Segran | Sr. Vice President Mr. P. K. Sinha | Regional Vice President Mr. Gaurang Shetty | Sr. Vice President Customer Services Alliances Capt. Hassan Al-Mousawi | Sr. Vice President-Operations On Time Performance Mr. Abdulkhaliq Saeed | Sr. Vice President Engineering Maintenance Mr. Mahalingam Shivkumar | Sr. Vice President, Finance Mr. Rajesh Sharma | Vice President Internal Audit Mr. K. G. Vishwanath | Vice President Commercial Strategy and Investor Relations Dato K. Jeyakanthan | Sr. Vice President Engineering Services Mr. Jay Shelat | Vice President Cargo Mr. Raj Sivakumar | Vice President Network Planning, Revenue Management Distribution Dr. Samar B. Srivastava | Vice President Human Resources Mr. Ashok Barimar | General Counsel Vice President Legal Ms. Ragini Chopra | Vice President Corporate Communication and Public Relations Ms. Monica Chopra | Company Secretary Sr. General Manager Legal (2.0) Environmental Analysis: For success within the airline industry, an awareness of the external environment is essential. This section aims to highlight the position of the industry, in particular looking at competitors and assessing Jet airways capability to meet current and future challenges. (2.1) PESTEL Analysis Of Jet Airways: Political Issue License issue for international operation. Infrastructural constraint. ATF price policy. Open sky policy. FDI Limits: 100% Greenfield airport 74% existing airports. 100% through special permission. 49% for airlines. Economic Effects The income level is rising. Contribution to the Indian economy. There is a rise in the cost of fuel. Investment in the sector of aviation. The growth of the middle income group family affects the aviation sector. Reduced fare but yet not enough. Social Effects Developing of the cities to better services and airports. Employment opportunities. Safety regulations. The status symbol attached to a plane travel. Technological Effects Modernization of aircrafts. The growth of e-commerce and e-ticketing. Satellite based navigation system. Modernisation and privatisation of the airports. Modern technology like CAT3 and ILS. Environmental Sector There is an increase in the global warming. The sudden change and the unexpected behaviour of the climate and to depend on the atmosphere. Shortage of the infrastructural capacity. There is a tourism saturation. Legal Factors. FDI limits. Bilateral treaties. Airlines acquisitions and the leasing cost. (2.2) SWOT Analysis Of Jet Airways: Figure 2.2 shows SWOT Analysis: S Market driver. Experience exceeding 14 year. Only private airline with international operation . They have a strong brand value and their reputation is very high in the mind of the customers. The service quality is good. Largest fleet size. There is a continuous innovation in their business. W Loosing domestic market share . Old fleet with average age around 4.79 years. Scope for improvement in in-flight service. High ticket pricing. Facing a tough competition from the competitors. O Untapped air cargo market . Scope in international service and tourism. The non penetrated domestic market. T Strong competitors. Fuel price hike. Overseas market competition. Infrastructure issues. Tourism saturation. Economic slowdown. Promotion and sponsorship declining. (3.0) Strategic Planning Model: (3.1) Porters Five Forces Model Of Jet Airways: (1) The threat of the entry of new competitors: The threat of the new entrants is very high for Jet Airways, because right now there are so many new airline company that has come with new strategies and services. The more profitable the industry is the more attractive it will be to new competitors. And as we know that Jet Airways is a very well known airline company of India since many years and it has a brand image and has a good reputation on the customers mind but then also Jet Airways has to give the best service quality to the customers to remain the market leader in the business. (2) The intensity of the competitive rivalry: The intensity of the competitive rivalry is high for Jet Airways. Jet Airways has many competitive rivals like Kingfisher Airlines, British Airways, Air India, Virgin Atlantic, etc. Jet Airways has both long haul flights and short haul flights. They are losing the domestic share market so in this competitive industry they have to bring some innovation in their business. Their strategy is very powerful because they are concentrating more in the service quality. Their aircrafts are modernised and they have the modernised technology like CAT3 and ILS. (3) The threat of substitute products or services: The threat of substitute for Jet Airways is low. There are few substitutes for Jet Airways: For short haul flights they have: Jet Connect and Jet Lite. For long haul flights they have: No notable substitute. (4) The bargaining power of customers (buyers): The bargaining power of buyer is medium. Jet Airways has the option to switch the suppliers and according to that the customers of Jet Airways also has the option to switch. (5) The bargaining power of suppliers: The bargaining power of supplier is high. The supplier can switch to any other option at any time. (4.0) Managing Risk: Every business faces risks that could present threats to its success. Risk is defined as the probability of an event and its consequences. Risk management is the practice of using processes, methods and tools for managing these risks. Risk management focuses on identifying what could go wrong, evaluating which risks should be dealt with and implementing strategies to deal with those risks. Businesses that have identified the risks will be better prepared and have a more cost-effective way of dealing with them. The types of risk your business faces strategic, for example a competitor coming on to the market. compliance, for example responding to the introduction of new health and safety legislation. financial, for example non-payment by a customer or increased interest charges on a business loan. operational, for example the breakdown or theft of key equipment. (4.1) Managing Risk Of Jet Airways: Jet Airways falls in the strategic risk and the operational risk. Strategic and Operational Risk: Overview of cyber-security and best practices in fraud prevention. Understanding key fundamentals of PCI Data Security Standards and what airlines need to do to align with the necessary requirements. Risk management in Jet Airways: Fraud prevention strategies and processes. Strategies in IVR risk control. The way forward in risk management. (5.0) Strategy and Ethics of JET AIRWAYS: Strategy of Jet Airways: The main strategy of Jet Airways is to maintain service quality. Jet Airways (India) Ltd. has earned the distinction of receiving the IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA) Registration. The airline has successfully completed the Operational Safety Audit and has entered into the IOSA Registry. One of the strategies that Jet Airways is following: Jet Airways strategy: removing a row to gain passenger space Mumbai: After having removed a row of seats from some of its planes to increase overall leg room for passengers, Jet Airways (India) Ltd is using an innovative, three-dimensional billboard campaign to sell the concept. Developed by Mudra Groups outdoor unit Primesite, the Mumbai billboards have images of two chairs sitting close to each other, and then one drifting on railings to reveal the message: Weve removed a row to give you more space. The row of seats has been done away with in Jets 737-800s series planes. Removal of rows to create space for cramped passengers isnt a new idea as many airlines, especially in the US, have used similar tactics and messages to differentiate their planes from rivals. Several other companies, such as auto makers (with sections of cars) and even coffee companies (Bru used chairs and tables) have used three-dimensional billboards to stand out. Says Gaurang Shetty, vice- president, marketing, Jet Airways: We wanted to create an impact and effectively communicate that we have removed a row of seats from our domestic flights, thereby giving more space on our domestic flights. The outdoor innovation has only been done in Mumbai considering the restrictions on the same in other metros. We would be communicating through hoardings in Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore. Sanjeev Hajela, president, Primesite, says the campaign has a budget of Rs55-60 lakh. Jet is a large user of outdoor media and is believed to spend as much as Rs10-Rs12 crore a year, some 20% of the airlines marketing spend. Jet Airways was one of the early entrants in the aviation business, as also the first private airline to fly to overseas destinations and had a relatively simple creative message: Jet Flies to 44 Domestic and 8 International Destinations. Notes Jagdeep Kapoor, managing director of Samsika Marketing Consultants Pvt. Ltd: Earlier, the positioning of the Jet brand was such that it reflected aspirational value. It was an aspired brand while all the rest were tired and perspired brands. Today its different. They have found a competitor in their own league in form of Kingfisher. There is a switch taking place, with some customers shifting loyalties to Kingfisher. He classifies Jets growth in terms of three Ss: Sustenance, Service and the need to (Speed Up). In spite of not being the first entrant in the aviation space, the Jet brand grew steadily, sustained and survived. Later on, Jet grew to be the best premium brand in the whole country by highlighting the service aspect. In service, they were unparalleled and premium. Today, its different and Jet needs to speed up. They need to aggressively build themselves as a brand, and advertise themselves like a consumer brand if they need to beat Kingfisher. 2) Ethics of Jet Airways: The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (Code) has been adopted by Jet Airways (India) Limited to comply with applicable law and the rules and regulations of the Stock Exchanges on which the securities of the Company are listed. (6.0) Strategic and Operational Conflict: Strategic Planning: Long term. Affect widely. Generic. Org. People and other org. People. Operational Planning: Short term. Narrow/limited scope. Detailed. Within orgs. People. Strategic v Operational Conflict: Jet Airways has some strategic v operational conflict and they are: Jet Airways (India) Ltd.s three- day conflict with its pilots is costing the nations second- largest airline passengers and may hamper plans to raise $400 million to buy new planes. The last thing investors want to see when the airlines trying to raise funds is a crisis like this, Kapil Kaul, chief executive officer of the Indian unit of Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation, an industry adviser said yesterday. This is a wildfire and they need to put out as soon as possible. Alternate Arrangements: Jet Airways is endeavouring to make alternate arrangements on other airlines wherever possible and our airport teams will assist its guests to the fullest extent, Jet Air said. (7.0) Recommendations: As a result, we can say that Jet Airways is following different types of environmental analysis and strategic planning models to run their organization and their main strategy is to give service quality to the customer. So from this, we have conclude that Jet Airways is focusing on the services which they are giving to the customers to gain their loyalty and trust and to become the worlds no.1 airline industry. Due to lack of primary research we cant access more information about the company. References: Online links:, contains the strategy of Jet Airways., contains The Code of Conduct., it contains SWOT analysis and PEST analysis of Jet Airways.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Struggling with Death in The Epic of Gilgamesh Essay -- Papers Gilgame

Struggling with Death in The Epic of Gilgamesh In the ?Epic of Gilgamesh,? Gilgamesh deals with an issue that nearly destroyed him. He sought after immortality so much that he put his own life on the edge. Centuries later, this quest unites our high tech, fast paced culture with the remote and different culture of Gilgamesh. Humanity has yet to find the secret of letting go of the idea of everlasting life. Many people today hold on to the topic of immortality because they find it so difficult to say goodbye to a loved one. Placing flowers on graves is a popular way to remember the deceased. Even years after the person has died, the family members and friends still go to the gravesite to reminisce. People find it difficult to accept the fact that they will never see someone again. They want to believe that the person is still there. Gilgamesh had the same problem. He made the journey looking for his friend. He couldn?t deal with the fact that Enkidu had died. He wanted him to live forever. Gilgamesh even went as far as almost sacrificing his life to find him...

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Main Features of French Rule in Indochina

Main Features of French Rule in Indochina By 1893 France had colonised all of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia and renamed it the French Indochinese Union. The French were oppressive and self-interested. They ran Indochina as a profit making venture and tried to ensure it paid for its own administration. Colonial governor Paul Doumer made the people pay for the cost of their own rule by increasing customs duties and direct taxes. He created official monopoly on salt, alcohol, and opium.Doumer concentrated on building railways and lighthouses while denying the people development and education. Before French rule 80 per cent of Vietnamese were literate in Chinese but by the end of 1940 only 20 per cent of boys were at school and a much smaller per cent of girls. The French exploited Vietnamese resources and labour. They paid the people minimal wages and forced them to work in horrific conditions. Vietnamese land was turned over to the production of rice, rubber, opium, spices and other commo dities to export for French profit.The French altered traditional land ownership and the Vietnamese peasants had to take out loans with the interest rate of up to 70 per cent to pay the rent of there land and homes. The French also introduced a currency system which was poorly understood and not trusted by the peasants who had always used bartering. With the change in land ownership came a massive change in Indochinese social structure. This destroyed village life which was the main Indochinese social unit. The village was the centre of their religious, cultural and economic lives and was the most important administrative unit in Vietnam.This destruction of the social system along with land ownership changes resulted in a small elite group of Vietnamese land owners who collaborated with the French and left the 90% of the population of the peasants oppressed and in poverty. The French ruled Indochina with force and used repressive methods to end any rebellion. They divided Vietnam in to three administrative divisions of Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina. A number of Vietnamese groups tried to rebel and were executed by the French. The majority of Vietnamese were Buddhist and the French tried to convert everyone to Catholicism.Anybody who rebelled against the French priests was imprisoned or executed. With the outbreak of World War Two France surrendered to Germany and allowed Japan to administer Indochina. This resulted in the destruction of culture and widespread famine. Towards the end of WW2 Japanese soldiers seized the bulk of the Vietnamese rice crop and French officials with held the remaining supplies from the peasants. This resulted in a major famine where 2 million people died. After WW2 the French tried to reclaim Indochina supported by the United States and Britain.Relations between the French and the Vietnamese deteriorated as key independence leaders Ho Chi Minh and General Giap began to fight for the rights of the Vietnamese. When the French broke the August agreement and bombed Haiphong killing six thousand civilians the first Indochinese war began. This war of attrition saw the Vietnamese develop skilled guerrilla tactics in the face of superior French fire power. By 1954 this conflict ended in the battle of Dien Bien Phu with a decisive Vietnamese victory. The Geneva conference that began the day after battle ended resulted in the end of French rule in Indochina.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Application Of Five Project Management Process Groups

A successful project requires effective management with the application of five project management process groups. Those five process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. Each process consists of inputs, outputs, tools and techniques. Throughout the project, each process group acts as a guide for project managers and their team to apply appropriate knowledge and skills in order to meet project objectives. As with every project, project teams will face challenges in each of the five process groups. First, the initiating process group consists of processes â€Å"performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase† (PMI 49). In other words, a project manager needs proper authorization before beginning the project. To start this process group, a project sponsor must identify the business case and the stakeholders. From the business case, the project sponsor performs a feasibility analysis to determine if the technical and financial resources are available and if the project brings business value (Portny 15). The brainstorming with internal and external stakeholders helps to define the project objectives, initial scope, and project boundaries. This process group produces the stakeholder register and project charter. A project charter documents the gathered information and formalizes the authorization for a chosen project manager. When the collection ofShow MoreRelatedProject Management Is a Set of Practical Skills and Understanding Managers Use to Complete a Project535 Words   |  3 Pagesby Project Management Institute which was submitted at the beginning of this proposal, a substantial numbers of experts have defined project management. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Metaphor Analysis - 1003 Words

Metaphor Analysis The Sea and Dry Land In his Preface to the play, Bolt informs the reader his main metaphors are the sea and dry land, to suggest the supernatural order vs. the human order. The sea is formless, vast, and unpredictable. The land is security, home, order, what is known. Thomas More paradoxically clings to the safety of law and land but finds himself swept by his religious faith out to sea. Bolt did not want a purely naturalistic play, he says, and the metaphors are a way to add scope and philosophic depth, as in a poem. Thomas More is a home-loving man with his house and family in Chelsea and their well-ordered ways. In addition, he is a lawyer who believes in the law as the safeguard of the citizens: â€Å"The law is a†¦show more content†¦43). Politicians are compared to boats on the ocean. Cromwell says of More, â€Å"There’s a man who raises the gale and won’t come out of the harbor† (Act Two, p. 119). He has raised a storm of controversy but tries to remain safe. More predicts that when Wolsey falls, â€Å"the splash would swamp a few small boats like ours† (Act One, p. 35). When King Henry visits More at Chelsea he pilots a new warship down the Thames, The Great Harry, literally exemplifying a threatening ship of state bearing down on the little domestic garden. Metaphors of the Self Related to the water imagery for the supernatural order are images for the conscience or self, a person’s integrity. â€Å"As a water spaniel is to water, so is a man to his own self† (Act Two, p. 123). A water spaniel is attracted to the water; it is his element, just as a man’s self or soul is the element he must swim in. More explains to his daughter that when a man takes an oath, â€Å"he’s holding his own self in his own hands. Like water† (Act Two, p. 140). If he opens his fingers then, breaking the oath, he has lost his self. 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The metaphor provides a method to analyze parallels between the metaphor and the organizationRead MoreCritical Metaphor Analysis Approach7941 Words   |  32 Pages| | | | I. INTRODUCTION II. OBJECTIVES III. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF METAPHOR IV. METAPHOR AND OTHER LANGUAGE FEATURES ANALYSIS OF MARGARET THATCHER’S SPEECH TO 1987 CONSERVATIVE PARTY CONFERENCE IN BLACKPOOL V. CONCLUSION VI. REFERENCES VII. APPENDIX I I. ------------------------------------------------- Read MoreTo Kill A Mockingbird Metaphor Analysis775 Words   |  4 PagesThe Mockingbird Metaphor Think of the saying, â€Å"you are the apple of my eye†. Most of today’s society understands that somebody is referring to someone that they cherish above all else. This phrase is a common metaphor that is used all around the world. Many times authors use a metaphor to convey a message without telling it right out to the reader. This technique is used by Harper Lee in her novel To Kill a Mockingbird. The title of the novel refers to persecution of the innocent which is highlightedRead MoreAnalysis of Metaphors and Symbols in Fahrenheit 4512249 Words   |  9 PagesFarris 3 Lauren Farris Mrs. Reid AP English 4 21 March 2006 Analysis of Metaphors and Symbols in Fahrenheit 451 Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury takes the reader to a time where firemen do not put out fires; they start them in order to burn books, because books and intelligent thinking is outlawed. By using a combination of metaphors and symbols in this novel, Bradbury deepens the intricacy of his central them that censorship and too much government control is dangerous, and men should beRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of `` Catch `` By Chris Leggett Essay1200 Words   |  5 Pagesdepends on what the writer is trying to accomplish. What is most important is understanding what one is writing about and effectively delivering it. In the sample essay, Tossing Metaphors Together in Robert Francis s Catch by Chris Leggett, Leggett writes an analysis paper in which he analyzes the extended metaphor of the poem. While in the sample essay, How William Faulkner s Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily by Tony Groulx, Groulx writes a research paper where he researches variousRead MorePoetry Analysis of Int roduction to Poetry837 Words   |  4 PagesPoetry analysis of ‘Introduction to Poetry’ The Poem â€Å"Introduction to Poetry† is by Billy Collins, an English poet, and it is about how teachers often force students to over-analyze poetry and to try decipher every possible meaning portrayed throughout the poem rather than allowing the students to form their own interpretation of the poem based on their own experiences. Throughout the poem, a number of literary devices are used. For example: â€Å"or press an ear against its hive†. Using this metaphorRead MoreMedia Project1616 Words   |  7 PagesIreland. Politics and the English Language 1. When Orwell refers to dead metaphors, he means metaphors that have lost their authenticity and meaning, and has â€Å"†¦reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness†, using iron resolution and fishing in troubled waters as examples. Original metaphors, ones that â€Å"evoke a visual image†, that he used to combat dying metaphors are â€Å"†¦more and more phrases being tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated